Tag: native plants

The shade of a tree

The shade of a tree

Having the shade of a canopy tree is greatly appreciated on a sunny day.  How often do we think about how long it took that tree to get large enough to provide us with that shade?  How long will it continue to live and provide us with shade?  While many trees can live to be hundreds of years old, it is not the norm.  Think about how many acorns each oak tree produces each fall.  Consider how many of those spiny balls fall off each sweet gum tree; those each contained a few dozen seeds.  Now think about how many hundred-year-old trees there are where you see those acorns and sweet gum balls.  Not very many of those babies make it to old age.

Many of the largest, oldest trees in Charlotte were planted about a hundred years ago.  It is not unheard of for trees to live to be a few hundred years old; some trees have been alive for more than a thousand years.  But trees growing in an urban, or even suburban, environment have to put up with numerous stressors they would not have in a forest.  They are subjected to significant air pollution, light pollution, soil compaction, and reduced water availability.  The soil is nothing like what would be found in a forest.

I have two tulip poplar trees in my front yard that are probably around 70 years old.  This is relatively old for urban trees.  They provide ample and greatly appreciated shade to the house and yard.  They’re healthy now, but if I want to maintain a shady house and yard, I need to plan for their replacements now.   One might argue that there’s not room in my front yard for more than two large, mature trees.  That’s true.  But my planning now for the demise of the two current residents doesn’t mean I am going to plant two large trees now.  It means I will plant small trees now.  Those small trees will grow very slowly for the next decade or two, in the shade of the large poplars which have deep roots, drawing nutrients and water from depths unavailable to the small trees.  Then, in a decade or two or three, when the tulip poplars are no longer healthy and come down, I will have a couple of sub-canopy trees that will then be able to quickly take advantage of the extra water, nutrients, and light available to become good shade trees in a handful of years as opposed to my having to wait another 40 years for newly planted trees to grow.



“Garden Revolution:  How our landscapes can be a source of environmental change”

“Garden Revolution: How our landscapes can be a source of environmental change”

I just finished reading this book by Larry Weaner and Thomas Christopher.  I thoroughly enjoyed it.  It was a wonderful reminder that instead of altering the landscape to suit the needs of the plants we want to use, we should be instead determining what plants will do best in the environment as it is.  The plants will be much more successful that way, and there will be much less maintenance required!

The authors provide numerous stories about how various situations they’ve been in began with one mindset but ended up being tremendously successful by their recognizing some aspect of the landscape that clued them in about what plants would be best suited to the area.

Gorgeous pictures and very inspiring.  I highly recommend it.

Why Invasive Plants Are Bad

Why Invasive Plants Are Bad

Ecologists, field biologists, and conservationists have strongly negative feelings towards “invasive” plants. This article explains why they are so much of a problem. First, let’s clarify a bit of terminology. What is an invasive plant? An invasive plant is one that is not native to an area and that is having a negative impact on native habitats.  What does it mean for a plant to be “not native” to an area? Any species that has not been in an area for thousands of years such that it has evolved with its cohabitant species is not native to that area. The terms “non-native” and “exotic” may be used interchangeably with regard to species nativity.

One important thing to understand is that not all non-native plants are invasive. Thinking of non-native plants, you may consider plants such as the tomato, the apple, Italian oregano, autumn olive, Chinese privet… We have literally hundreds of non-native plants. But it’s only the ones that are invasive that are cause for concern. Tomatoes, apples, and oregano tend to stay where you put them—they are not invasive. Autumn olive and Chinese privet are invasive. A person may say, “well, my autumn olive and Chinese privet plants are staying exactly where I put them in my yard. They’re not going anywhere!” But let’s take a wider look at the situation.

There are many wonderful forest preserves here in the Charlotte area. When you take a walk through McDowell or Reedy Creek or RibbonWalk Nature Preserve, one never sees a rogue tomato plant or apple tree growing in the woods. But we do see many autumn olive and Chinese privet bushes. This is why the autumn olive and Chinese privet (along with many others) are considered invasive. Birds eat the berries of the olive and privet shrubs that are planted in people’s yards and they end up pooping the seeds out in natural areas. The seeds sprout and grow into mature shrubs in the woods, where they produce more berries to be eaten by birds which then carry more seeds into more areas. This does not happen with tomatoes and apples. The birds may eat them, and they may poop out the seeds in a natural area, but the tomato and apple plants are not able to persist unaided in the natural areas.

What’s the problem with the autumn olive and Chinese privet being in the natural areas? Many people have been studying the ways that non-native species influence the areas they invade and the effects are actually quite complex. (My mom has advised me to keep my blogs short-and-sweet so I’m going to try to keep it simple and straight-forward for now and can then elaborate more on each of these in future posts.)

Some ways that non-native species affect the habitats they invade include:

1) They do not contribute much to the food chain. Birds may eat the fruits and butterflies may eat the nectar, but the primary food that most plants contribute to the food chain is their leaves. Most native leaf-eaters cannot digest the leaves of non-native plants, and frequently do not even recognize them as food. This basically results in the collapse of the food web.

2) They compete with the native plants for nutrients, light, space, and water. Many of the invasive plants in our area are evergreen, and many others leaf-out earlier in the spring than native plants do and retain their leaves later into the fall than native plants do; this longer leaf retention gives the non-native plants a competitive advantage over native plants. Fewer resources are available for the native plants, resulting in less food available for the animals.

3) They alter the soil chemistry in many ways. Their roots exude chemicals that alter the pH of the soil. This reduces the ability of native plants to extract nutrients from the soil. It also influences the types of organisms that can live in the soil and the rate at which things decompose. These, in turn, alter the food web.

In the Charlotte area, my students and I have found a paucity of earthworms and other soil-dwelling organisms in the soil around invasive plants compared to nearby areas without invasive plants. We have also found that the leaves of the invasive autumn olive decay much faster than those of our native beech tree.

Let’s return now to thinking about our local nature preserves. Vast areas of these woods are infested with invasive, non-native plants that contribute very little to the food web, yet take up substantial amounts of space, light, water, and nutrients. If we truly want to preserve natural areas, we need to do our best to stop the spread of invasive plants so the wildlife will have the food they need to survive. The base of the food chain is native plants. The invasive plants might as well be plastic, as far as their contribution to the food web is concerned.

This is a general overview, but I’d be happy to get into greater detail.  Let me know your thoughts and questions!

Not sure what plants are considered invasive?  Here’s a great resource where you can find out!  https://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/index.html

Overwhelmed by the long lists of invasive species and just want to know if one certain species is invasive?  See the previous post, titled “How to find out which plants are native”.  It also explains how to find out which plants are invasive.

Need help figuring out which plants in your yard are invasive?  As as ecological consultant, I can visit your yard and identify all your invasive plants.  I can teach you how to recognize them and how to get rid of them.  I can also help you select the most appropriate native plants with which to replace them!

#preservingnature #invasiveplants #nativeplants #protectingwildlife

How to find out which plants are native

Talking with someone the other day, it came up that this would be a good topic for a blog post.  When you go to a nursery or garden center, how do you know which plants are native and which ones are invasive?  It’s actually pretty simple these days, lucky for us.  Most of us carry the “World Wide Web” with us at all times, so it’s easy to quickly find out where a species of plant comes from if the plants for sale are labelled.  You can just Google the species name and the word “native”!

google salvia greggii

There’s a USDA webpage that is helpful in learning where plants come from and where they are invasive.  The picture below shows what I got when I searched on their website for Lonicera sempervirens, a plant that is native to the eastern U.S., as shown by indicating in green the states in which the plant is native and in blue the areas where it has been introduced.  In the table to the left of the map, it in dictates that the species is native (N) to the U.S. but has been introduced (I) in Canada.


Below, I’ve searched for Ligustrum sinense, a plant that is not native to the U.S..  This plant has been introduced to many states in the east and southern U.S., as seen by the blue on the map and the “I” indicated next to the native status in the table to the left of the map.  (There is a legend for the map just below it on the webpage to indicate what the colors indicate.)


Below, you can see that I have Googled “Nandina invasive”.  It is pretty clear from the first few hits that Nandina has invasive tendencies.  If it is invasive anywhere in the U.S., you can expect that it will likely become invasive here too.  I’ll post another blog soon to explain the reasons why it’s so important to avoid planting invasive species.


For some plant labels, it’s a bit difficult for a less experienced botanist or gardener to determincultivar tage what the name to google is.  Take the tag at the left, for example.  On the front of this tag, it simply says ‘Miss Molly’.  (Many times, there will be more specific name information on the back of the plant tag in tiny writing.)  Simply googling “‘Miss Molly'” isn’t very helpful, but if I google “‘Miss Molly’ pink plant”, I immediately find what I’m looking for and see that it’s a species of Buddleia, a butterfly bush.  Then I can google “Buddleia native” to find out if it’s native to my area.  It’s not.  It’s actually becoming invasive in many places.  😦

I hope this blog was a bit helpful.  If you have any questions, I’d be happy to answer them for you.





Witch hazel has a lot of gall!


Walking around the yard the other day, I noticed these little bumps all over the leaves of my witch hazel tree which, otherwise, looks quite happy and healthy.  Some of the bumps are green, others are red.


These galls are caused by the witch hazel gall aphid, Hormaphis hamamelidis.  The growth on the leaf is a response of the plant to an injection of salivary secretions, and possibly an infecting virus, by the aphid.  The aphid’s offspring then develop inside the gall where they are protected from predators as they develop, getting the nutrients they need from the sap of the plant.

gall aphids cropped

This species of aphid feeds on witch hazel and birch trees.  This paper is a very thorough study of the witch hazel gall aphids:

Lewis, I.F. and L. Walton.  1958.  Gall-formation on Hamamelis virginiana resulting from material injected by the aphid Hormaphis hamamelidis.  Transactions of the American Microscopical Society  77(2): 146-200.